Desonerações e retração reduziram carga tributária em 2014

Desonerações e retração reduziram carga tributária em 2014

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Brasília – As desonerações federais e a retração da indústria fizeram a carga tributária – peso da arrecadação de tributos sobre a economia – cair em 2014.

De acordo com dados divulgados há pouco pela Receita Federal, o Brasil pagou 33,47% do Produto Interno Bruto (PIB, soma de tudo o que o país produz) em tributos no ano passado, contra 33,74% em 2013.

Segundo a Receita, a redução da carga deve-se inteiramente aos tributos federais. Em 2014, os tributos da União responderam por 22,91% do PIB, queda de 0,35% ponto percentual em relação a 2013.

Os tributos estaduais somaram 8,48%, queda de 0,03 p.p., e os tributos municipais totalizaram 2,07%, com alta de 0,11 p.p

Conforme a Receita Federal, a queda da carga pode ser explicada, em parte, pelos efeitos das desonerações concedidas em 2014, que fez a União deixar de arrecadar R$ 103,8 bilhões.

Em 2013, as reduções de tributos tinham feito o governo federal deixar de arrecadar R$ 75,9 bilhões.

Outra parte do recuo do indicador deve-se à retração da indústria e no comércio ao longo do ano passado.

Os principais tributos responsáveis pela queda da carga tributária foram o Programa de Integração Social (PIS), a Contribuição para o Financiamento da Seguridade Social (Cofins), o Imposto de Renda Pessoa Jurídica (IRPJ) e a Contribuição Social sobre o Lucro Líquido (CSLL). A arrecadação dos quatro tributos caiu 0,56 p.p. do PIB no ano passado.

O PIS e a Cofins incidem sobre o faturamento e estão diretamente relacionados ao consumo.

Segundo a Receita, a queda da arrecadação desses tributos foi provocada pela retração do comércio varejista, mais as atividades de veículos, motos, autopeças e material de construção, que caíram 1,7% em 2014.

Também interferiu na queda a exclusão do PIS/Cofins da base de cálculo do Imposto sobre a Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços (ICMS) dos produtos importados, determinada pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal em 2013 e revertida pelo Congresso Nacional neste ano.

A queda no IRPJ e na CSLL está associada à redução dos lucros das empresas. Apesar da retração da indústria no ano passado, a arrecadação de Imposto sobre Produtos Industrializados (IPI) subiu 0,06 p.p. do PIB por causa da reversão das desonerações para o setor automotivo e da elevação das alíquotas do setor de fumo.

Apesar de o país pagar cerca de um terço do que produz em tributos, a Receita destaca que a carga tributária é menor que a de outros países e está abaixo da média da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE), grupo dos países mais industrializados, que corresponde a 35% do PIB.

Em relação aos principais países da América Latina, no entanto, o Brasil lidera o indicador, à frente da Argentina (31,2%), Bolívia (27,6%) e Uruguai (27,1%).

Fonte: Revista Exame

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