Entenda as implicações da perda da eficácia jurídica da Medida Provisória nº 808/2017 na Reforma Trabalhista

Entenda as implicações da perda da eficácia jurídica da Medida Provisória nº 808/2017 na Reforma Trabalhista

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Desde 23.04.2018, expirou o prazo constitucional de 120 dias para que a Medida Provisória (MP) nº 808/2017, em vigor desde 14.11.2017, fosse apreciada pelo Congresso Nacional. Assim, referida medida teve seu prazo de vigência encerrado, a qual trouxe alterações na Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (CLT) e em alguns pontos que estavam previstos desde 11.11.2017 na Lei nº 13.467/2017, conhecida popularmente como “Reforma Trabalhista”. Com a perda da eficácia da citada MP, voltam a valer, integralmente e sem alterações, as regras originariamente aprovadas na Reforma Trabalhista, tornando sem efeito, inclusive, as alterações que a MP trouxe na CLT.

Perante a Constituição Federal, a perda da validade da MP, pela sua não apreciação parlamentar, impõe ao Congresso Nacional disciplinar, por decreto legislativo, as relações jurídicas dela decorrentes. Se não editado o decreto legislativo até 60 dias após a rejeição ou perda de eficácia de MP, as relações jurídicas constituídas e decorrentes de atos praticados durante sua vigência conservar-se-ão por ela regidas. Também é previsto constitucionalmente que é vedada a reedição, na mesma sessão legislativa, de MP que tenha sido rejeitada ou que tenha perdido sua eficácia por decurso de prazo. Cabe observar que, por meio do Ato Declaratório do Congresso Nacional nº 22/2018 (DOU 1 de 25.04.2018), há a oficialização de que a MP 808/2017 teve seu prazo de vigência encerrado em 23.04.2018.

Diante da perda da validade da MP 808/2017, instaura-se uma insegurança jurídica sobre as relações de trabalho que empregadores e empregados já vinham pactuando desde a edição da citada Medida, a qual claramente garantiu que a Reforma Trabalhista prevista em lei se aplicaria aos contratos vigentes na data de 11.11.2017.

Em função das condições ora descritas, o Governo federal estuda publicar um decreto a fim de minimizar as consequências da perda da eficácia da MP 808/2017, voltando a disciplinar pontos importantes da Reforma Trabalhista, como é o caso do trabalho intermitente. O Ministério do Trabalho divulgou nota em seu sitedispondo que o Governo pode publicar decreto ou portaria após a perda da validade da MP.

Entre vários pontos da MP que deixaram de ter eficácia jurídica na Reforma Trabalhista, destacam-se:

1) Contratos anteriores à nova lei

A MP previa que a nova lei se aplicaria integralmente para contratos que já estavam vigentes na data de 11.11.2017.

Pelo texto original da reforma, não há previsão expressa de que as novas regras valeriam para contratos firmados anteriormente à entrada em vigor da lei.

Com a perda da validade da MP, abre-se o questionamento jurídico se a Reforma Trabalhista seja aplicada aos contratos vigentes na data de 11.11.2017 ou somente aos contratos de trabalho celebrados a contar da referida data.

2) Trabalho da mulher grávida em atividades insalubres

A MP estabelecia o afastamento da grávida de qualquer atividade insalubre enquanto durasse a gestação, independentemente do grau de insalubridade. No entanto, o texto da MP abria a possibilidade de a gestante trabalhar em locais de graus mínimo ou médio de insalubridade, desde que, voluntariamente, apresentasse atestado médico que autorizasse a atividade nesses locais.

No texto original da reforma, a mulher gestante pode trabalhar nos graus mínimo e médio de insalubridade, a não ser que a trabalhadora apresente atestado médico impedindo o desempenho da sua atividade nesses graus. O afastamento da gestante do local de trabalho só será obrigatório em casos de atividades com grau máximo de insalubridade.

3) Jornada 12 x 36 horas

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A medida exigia que a negociação da jornada de trabalho de 12 x 36 horas fosse feita por meio de convenção ou acordo coletivo de trabalho, exceto para os profissionais da área da saúde, que poderia ser por acordo individual.

No texto original da reforma, criou-se a possibilidade de contratar jornadas de 12 x 36 horas a serem negociadas diretamente entre empregador e empregado por acordo individual escrito, ou por acordo ou convenção coletiva de trabalho.

4) Trabalhador Autônomo

A MP havia proibido a celebração de cláusula que possibilitava a contratação de um trabalhador autônomo em caráter de exclusividade. Como perdeu a validade, a possibilidade volta a valer.

No texto original da reforma, a nova lei criou a possibilidade de cláusula de exclusividade para a contratação de trabalhadores autônomos, sem que isso caracterize o vínculo empregatício.

5) Trabalho Intermitente

A MP vedava que, até 31.12.2020, as empresas demitissem empregados com contrato a prazo indeterminado e, logo em seguida, os recontratasse no sistema de trabalho intermitente. Nessa hipótese, as empresas deveriam aguardar um prazo de 18 meses, contado da demissão do empregado.

Pelo conteúdo do texto original da reforma, não há previsão da restrição de 18 meses de espera. Além disso, haviam vários outros pontos previstos na MP que disciplinavam o contrato de trabalho intermitente, mas agora há poucos dispositivos da reforma original sobre o assunto.

6) Danos morais

A MP previa que a indenização para reparação de danos morais poderia variar, de acordo com a gravidade ofensiva (leve, média, grave e gravíssima), de 3 a 50 vezes o equivalente ao teto dos benefícios do Regime Geral de Previdência Social, que atualmente é de R$ 5.645,80, desde 1º.01.2018.

Pelo texto da lei na Reforma Trabalhista, a indenização referida volta a ser calculada com base no último salário contratual do ofendido. Nesse caso, a indenização também é variável de 3 a 50 vezes o salário do ofendido, segundo os graus anteriormente descritos de gravidade ofensiva, a diferença é que o cálculo sobre o teto dos benefícios previdenciários deixa de existir.

(Constituição Federal/1988, art. 62, §§ 3º, 7º, 10 e 11)

Fonte: Editorial IOB
Data: 25 de abril de 2018
Acesso: 27 de abril de 2018

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