Férias – Principais Dúvidas

Férias – Principais Dúvidas

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As férias apesar de fazer parte do cotidiano, tanto dos empregadores quanto dos empregados, ainda é objeto de diversas dúvidas. O objetivo principal desse artigo é dirimir dúvidas de alguns pontos que muitas vezes passam despercebidos por ambos.

A cada um ano de trabalho a Constituição Federal (CF) e a Consolidação das Leis Trabalhistas (CLT) garantem a todos os trabalhadores, dentre outros direitos, o de usufruir férias anuais remuneradas com pelo menos um terço a mais do que o salário normal, concedidas de acordo com a melhor época para o empregador, desde que não exceda os doze meses subsequentes à aquisição do direito.

A Constituição Federal, em seu inciso XVII do artigo 7º, e a CLT, no Capítulo IV, nos artigos do 123º até o 153º, assegura a todos os trabalhadores um período de férias.

O propósito das férias anuais é a “recuperação” das forças físicas e psicológicas despendidas em função dos trabalhos executados durante o ano da aquisição do direito às férias.

Dentre as principais dúvidas, senão a principal, destacamos a interrupção do contrato de trabalho em função do afastamento por acidente de trabalho ou auxílio doença por mais de seis meses.

Caso o afastamento ocorra por mais de seis meses no mesmo período aquisitivo, mesmo que descontínuos, o empregado perde o direito às férias derivadas desse período. Se o afastamento for inferior a seis meses o empregado terá direito às férias normalmente, tendo em vista que o afastamento por acidente ou doença não é considerado falta.

Férias
Por outro lado, caso o empregado se afaste por nove meses, sendo sete meses em um período aquisitivo, e os outros dois meses no segundo período, ele não fará jus às férias do período aquisitivo em que ficou afastado por sete meses. Com relação ao segundo período aquisitivo terá direito normalmente às férias, em virtude do período de afastamento ter sido inferior a seis meses.

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Quando o afastamento ocorre por menos de seis meses nos dois períodos aquisitivos, o empregado não perderá o direito às férias em nenhum dos dois períodos. Como podemos observar abaixo, o empregado ficou afastado por dois meses em cada período aquisitivo, sendo assim não perde o direito em nenhum dos períodos aquisitivos.

Férias

Outro fato que ainda gera muitas dúvidas, apesar de ser algo comum e rotineiro para empresa e empregado, é o prazo para pagamento das férias. Os artigos 142 e 145 da CLT determinam que o referido prazo para pagamento é de até dois dias antes do inicio do efetivo gozo. Sendo assim, se o empregado vai iniciar o descanso das férias no dia cinco do mês, essas férias devem ser pagas até o dia dois.

Se o início do gozo de férias for numa 2ª feira, é recomendável que o pagamento da respectiva remuneração ocorra o mais tardar até a 5ª feira antecedente, de modo a permitir que até dois dias antes do início do gozo das férias a remuneração devida esteja disponível ao empregado, sendo esse o posicionamento também adotado por boa parte dos doutrinadores.

A conversão em dinheiro de um terço dos dias das férias chamada de abono pecuniário, tratado no artigo 143 da CLT, também é um fato que ainda gera muitos questionamentos, por ambas as partes, principalmente quanto ao prazo para a sua solicitação. O prazo máximo para o empregado solicitar tal conversão é de até quinze dias antes do vencimento do período aquisitivo em questão, é uma opção do empregado, independente da concordância do empregador, desde que requerido no prazo estabelecido na legislação trabalhista. Como exemplo veja o empregado admitido em 01/10/2015, com o vencimento do seu período aquisitivo no dia 30/09/2016; deverá efetuar a solicitação de abono pecuniário de férias até o dia 15/09/2016. Após esta data limite a empresa não esta obrigada em atender ao pedido do empregado.

Semelhante à conversão de um terço dos dias em abono pecuniário, temos a solicitação do adiantamento do 13º salário por ocasião das férias. É obrigatório o pagamento do adiantamento do 13º salário (primeira parcela) por ocasião das férias, sempre que o empregado o requerer no mês de janeiro do correspondente ano (artigo 2º, parágrafo 2º, da Lei 4.749/65), salvo disposição mais benéfica em convenção ou acordo coletivo.

O adiantamento da 1ª parcela do 13º salário junto com as férias só será possível se o mês da fruição das férias recair entre os meses de fevereiro e novembro, não sendo devido se forem gozadas em janeiro ou dezembro.

Estas são apenas algumas dúvidas em relação às férias, que apesar de ser um procedimento usual e comum do cotidiano das empresas, são assuntos que ainda causam muitos questionamentos.

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