Fim da desoneração vai encarecer contratação de funcionários; entenda

Fim da desoneração vai encarecer contratação de funcionários; entenda

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A partir de 1º de setembro, apenas 17 dos 56 setores beneficiados anteriormente poderão permanecer com a desoneração da folha de pagamento

Quando os caminhoneiros bloquearam estradas de todo o país durante onze dias de maio para tentar derrubar (na marra) o preço dos combustíveis, os brasileiros não imaginavam o custo que o protesto poderia trazer à sociedade. O impacto da paralisação já pesa no bolso do brasileiro -que, além da alta nos preços generalizados pós-greve, também vê o retorno da cobrança de impostos que podem afetar a geração de novos empregos.

Isso acontece pois, na ânsia de encerrar os bloqueios dos caminhoneiros, o governo Temer cedeu e zerou a cobrança dos tributos PIS-Cofins e Cide sobre o diesel. Só que, para compensar a perda na arrecadação com esses impostos, pressionou pela aprovação de projetos que estavam parados. Foi dessa forma que conseguiu aprovar a desoneração da folha de pagamento, aumentando a carga tributária que incide na contribuição das companhias à aposentadoria do trabalhador.

A partir de 1º de setembro, apenas 17 dos 56 setores beneficiados anteriormente poderão permanecer com a desoneração. Empresas de setores como o hoteleiro, comércio varejista e algumas indústrias, como a de automóveis, serão atingidas pela medida. Outras, como empresas de calçados, confecção, construção civil, têxtil e de transporte, por exemplo, permanecem com o direito de optar pelo regime tributário diferenciado, mas apenas até 2020.

“Como a economia não cresce, o governo não consegue aumentar a arrecadação com o crescimento do PIB. Então ele tenta resolver o problema com mais carga tributária. Na conjuntura atual, era melhor deixar o mercado agir e não ter que passar a conta para esses setores que serão desonerados”, diz Juliana Inhasz, professora de economia do Insper.

Tal medida, segundo especialistas consultados por VEJA, deve encarecer a contratação de novos trabalhadores pelos setores atingidos, impactando na manutenção do nível de emprego formal, além de piorar a inflação, já que os empresários deverão repassar os custos ao consumidor.

O QUE É A DESONERAÇÃO?

A desoneração da folha é a substituição de 20% da contribuição patronal obrigatória e destinada ao regime de previdência que incide sobre a folha de pagamentos por uma que varia entre 1% e 4,5% sobre o faturamento das empresas.

Ela foi criada pelo governo Dilma, em 2011, para tentar estimular a geração de emprego e aumentar a competitividade das médias e grandes empresas brasileiras -mesmo que, para isso, o governo tivesse que abrir mão da arrecadação pretendida.

Dados da Receita Federal mostram que, entre 2012 e 2018, o governo deixou de arrecadar cerca de 94 bilhões de reais. Com a previsão de 157 bilhões de reais rombo nas contas públicas para este ano, contudo, fica praticamente impossível continuar a praticar tal benefício fiscal.

Os resultados, contudo, deixaram a desejar. O problema é que, com a recessão e agora a lenta recuperação, a expectativa na melhora da contratação não ocorreu e, dessa forma, a arrecadação caiu ainda mais -ajudando a abrir tal rombo nas contas públicas do país.

A greve dos caminhoneiros, portanto, serviu para deixar as contas públicas em situação ainda pior. Assim, com a necessidade de captação de recursos, as empresas dos setores selecionados deverão voltar a calcular as contribuições devidas à Previdência baseadas na folha de salários e, não mais, no faturamento.

“A finalidade [da reoneração] é apenas compensar a renúncia fiscal decorrente das benesses que foram dadas ao óleo diesel [após greve dos caminhoneiros] bem como tentar atenuar os efeitos negativos nas contas da Previdência”, afirma German Alejandro Fernandez, professor da Faculdade de Administração da FAAP (Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado).

IMPACTOS NAS EMPRESAS

As empresas dos setores que serão reonerados devem sofrer os impactos da medida já no mês seguinte ao retorno dos impostos mais altos.

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Como o sistema de desoneração só poderia ser escolhido por empresas acima do Simples Nacional, ou seja, com faturamento bruto anual acima de 4,8 milhões de reais atualmente, poucos pequenos empresários serão afetados.

Mas, nem por isso a sociedade civil não sentirá os impactos. Segundo especialistas, a volta da maior cobrança deverá encarecer o custo de mão de obra e, dessa forma, esfriar a contratação.

“A primeira coisa é que a reoneração encarece o custo da mão de obra para a empresa. Ela volta a incluir tributos que foram retirados anteriormente e o funcionário vai se tornar mais caro”, diz Juliana Inhasz, do Insper.

A notícia é ruim para um país onde o desemprego atinge 13,7 milhões de pessoas, segundo dados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE).

Para além da alta no custo da mão de obra, a volta dos impostos previdenciários também podem impactar a inflação. “Eventualmente, esses setores também vão passar por um custo de produção maior o que vai pressionar a margem de lucro ou repassando para preço ao consumidor, cria-se um processo inflacionário”, completa a economista.

Segundo ela, o ideal seria que as companhias tivessem tirado proveito da época da desoneração para ganhar competitividade, fazer caixa e se preparar para quando o benefício fosse retirado a modo de não criar uma pressão tão grande nos custos como agora. Isso, contudo, pouco aconteceu.

Assim, os empresários devem balancear os custos para que tal alta não afete a competitividade da empresa, além, é claro, de manter o número de empregados na ativa.


IMBRÓGLIO JURÍDICO

O desespero do governo em retirar a desoneração da folha pode ter um preço ainda indefinido. Desde 2016, as empresas poderiam optar pelo regime tributário no início de cada ano. Assim, quem queria entrar na desoneração deveria, logo no começo do ano, avisar a Receita.

Como o governo Temer anulou os benefícios a partir de setembro de 2018, há um imbróglio jurídico aí. Empresas afirmam que, como optaram em janeiro por pagar os impostos no regime diferenciado, deveriam permanecer até o final de cada ano fiscal ao menos.

“As empresas escolhem optar pelo regime da desoneração sempre no começo do ano e de forma irretratável. Se é irretratável, você não pode mudar a regra do jogo no meio do ano”, diz o advogado tributarista Rodrigo Brunelli. “Então esse é um outro ponto de insegurança jurídica. Toda opção tributária que é irretratável para o ano você transforma a escolha em regra”, afirma.

Dessa forma, caso o governo não consiga enquadrar todos os setores novamente e a disputa judicial se alastre, a expectativa de receita, que previa um retorno de cerca de 800 milhões de reais já em 2018, deve ser revisada para baixo.

Fonte: Revista Veja
Data: 18 de agosto de 2018
Acesso: 24 de agosto de 2018

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