Pacote busca dar mais alívio para dívidas das empresas

Pacote busca dar mais alívio para dívidas das empresas

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Por Fabio Graner, Edna Simão, Andréa Jubé e Bruno Peres

Em meio a uma grave crise política, e no mesmo dia em que o Banco Central mostrou a continuidade da recessão no quarto trimestre, o presidente Michel Temer reuniu sua equipe econômica e anunciou ontem um conjunto de medidas para tentar dar fôlego às empresas e melhorar o nível de atividade econômica.

Entre as principais medidas estão regularização de dívidas tributárias e previdenciárias, a renegociação de dívidas de grandes empresas com o BNDES dentro do Programa de Sustentação do Investimentos (PSI), a redução da multa adicional de 10% do FGTS na demissão sem justa causa e a divisão dos lucros do fundo com os cotistas. Foi anunciada também autorização para que os lojistas façam diferenciação de preços entre dinheiro e cartão.

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Temer disse que as medidas visam “incrementar a economia brasileira num momento em que queremos o crescimento do país”. Ele reafirmou que seu governo nunca ignorou as dificuldades que enfrentaria desde que assumiu o governo. “Mas essas dificuldades vêm sendo vencidas paulatinamente”, afirmou. “Medidas estão sendo tomadas para sairmos da recessão.”

O ministro da Fazenda, Henrique Meirelles, informou que será enviada medida provisória com o Programa de Regularização Tributária (PRT), permitindo que os contribuintes pessoa física e jurídica coloquem em dia dívidas vencidas até 30 de novembro de 2016. O programa é diferente do Refis, demandado por parlamentares e empresas, que normalmente prevê redução de juros e multa pela inadimplência. Como será votado por deputados e senadores, o programa poderá ser mudado no Congresso. Meirelles destacou que o modelo protege o bom pagador.

Dentro do programa, será permitido usar até 100% dos créditos tributários decorrentes de prejuízos fiscais ou base negativa de CSLL para o abatimento das pendências com o Fisco, inclusive previdenciária. Hoje, o uso desse instrumento é limitado a 30% e não é permitido outro uso que não a redução do lucro que, no futuro, servirá de referência para o cálculo do IR e CSLL. Meirelles trabalha com a estimativa de receber R$ 10 bilhões de arrecadação com o PRT, mas avalia que pode arrecadar ainda mais.

A primeira opção para adesão prevê o pagamento de uma entrada de 20% à vista, com quitação ou amortização do restante com créditos de prejuízo fiscal e base de cálculo negativa da CSLL ou com créditos de tributos. O eventual saldo remanescente pode ser parcelado em até 60 meses. Há uma segunda opção que permite o pagamento de entrada de 24% da dívida em 24 meses, sendo 9,6% no primeiro ano. A quitação ou amortização do restante poderá ser feita com crédito com prejuízo fiscal ou base de cálculo negativa da CSLL ou outros créditos de tributos.

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As empresas que não têm prejuízo fiscal e as pessoas físicas também terão duas opções: a primeira opção prevê uma entrada de 20% à vista e parcelamento do restante em 96 parcelas equivalentes a 0,83% da dívida. Já a segunda opção considera o pagamento de uma entrada de 21,6% da dívida em 36 meses, sendo 6% no primeiro ano O parcelamento restante deverá ser feito em 84 parcelas.

Outra medida com impacto importante para as empresas é a possibilidade de renegociação de dívidas do PSI. Mesmo com juros bastante subsidiados, a recessão levou a aumento significativo da inadimplência nessas operações. Além disso, um alongamento desses débitos dá fôlego para o caixa das grandes empresas, mesmo diante do fato de que a renegociação será feita com linha remunerada pela TJLP, com spread, portanto mais cara.

O ministro interino do Planejamento, Dyogo de Oliveira, anunciou que a possibilidade é para as empresas com faturamento acima de R$ 300 milhões. Oliveira também repetiu o anúncio do BNDES na terça­-feira, permitindo renegociação de dívidas com a instituição para pequenas e médias empresas, cujo limite de faturamento para se enquadrar subiu de R$ 90 milhões para R$ 300 milhões.

Essas medidas do BNDES permitem a renegociação de um volume de crédito de até R$ 100 bilhões, mas o ministro do Planejamento acredita que efetivamente serão renegociados entre R$ 10 bilhões e R$ 20 bilhões. “A renegociação será sem equalização do Tesouro Nacional, portanto sem custo”, disse.

Responsável pelas medidas envolvendo o FGTS, Oliveira também anunciou que segue em estudo a possibilidade de permitir o uso de parte do saldo das contas vinculadas para o pagamento de dívidas de pessoas físicas. O tema é controverso e tem resistência do setor de construção e do próprio ministério da Fazenda.

Meirelles informou ainda que o governo deve definir nos próximos dez dias medidas para reduzir o prazo de repasse dos recursos decorrentes de compras no cartão de crédito para o lojista ou para reduzir o juro do crédito rotativo no cartão. O ministro não antecipou como seria esse mecanismo, que deve ser adotado por medida provisória.

Meirelles destacou medidas para desburocratização. Entre elas, a simplificação de procedimentos para aceleração da restituição e compensação de tributos, medida a ser executada até o fim do próximo ano. Ele prometeu a simplificação do pagamento de obrigações trabalhistas e tributárias, como a instituição de um E­Social (que hoje é só para os encargos de empregados domésticos) que unificará 13 obrigações com o governo. Também haverá unificação com os Estados do sistema de prestação de informações contábeis ao Fisco.

Meirelles tentou desvincular o anúncio das medidas da conjuntura política adversa. “É um programa bem pensado, anunciado na hora certa, logo após à PEC”, disse o ministro, ressaltando a estratégia de reequilíbrio macroeconômico seguida de medidas para aumento da produtividade. Segundo ele, a longo prazo desse processo permitirá a elevação do PIB potencial de em torno de 2% para 3% ao ano.

Fonte: Valor Econômico
Data: 16 de dezembro de 2016
Acesso: 16 de dezembro de 2016

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