Receita Federal pode redirecionar cobrança a sócio de microempresa

Receita Federal pode redirecionar cobrança a sócio de microempresa

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Por Beatriz Olivon

A 1ª Turma do Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ) entendeu que sócio pode responder por dívida tributária de micro ou pequena empresa regularmente extinta. E não é preciso, de acordo com os ministros, provar infração do sócio para o redirecionamento de execução fiscal. Porém, a cobrança não pode alcançar o seu patrimônio pessoal, apenas o que receber da liquidação da empresa.

Foi a primeira vez que a 1ª Turma julgou a questão para as microempresas. Mas há precedentes da 2ª Turma, que exigem, porém, o cumprimento do que estabelece o artigo 135 do Código Tributário Nacional (CTN). O dispositivo afirma que diretores ou sócios “são pessoalmente responsáveis pelos créditos correspondentes a obrigações tributárias resultantes de atos praticados com excesso de poderes ou infração de lei, contrato social ou estatutos”.

Na 1ª Turma, os ministros analisaram o caso da H&N Comércio de Produtos Ópticos. O relator, ministro Gurgel de Faria, votou pelo redirecionamento, sem necessidade de demonstrar infrações à lei. Mas também sem atingir bens do sócio.

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O ministro baseou seu voto no Estatuto da Micro e Pequena Empresa (Lei Complementar nº 123, de 2006), que permite a extinção regular de sociedade mesmo com dívida tributária, e no artigo 134, inciso 7, do CTN. O dispositivo estabelece que sócios, no caso de liquidação de empresa, devem responder solidariamente se houver impossibilidade de cobrança por omissões ou atos por eles praticados.

A decisão dos ministros foi unânime. “A responsabilidade solidária do microempresário, quando a sociedade é dissolvida regulamente, é limitada ao quinhão que ele recebeu”, resumiu o ministro Napoleão Nunes Maia Filho.

Para o advogado Rafael Monteiro, do escritório Gaia, Silva, Gaede & Associados Advogados, o precedente não se aplica a grandes empresas. Ele destacou que o entendimento da 2ª Turma levou em consideração repetitivo do STJ, que trata do tema de forma geral. A decisão diz que a falta de pagamento de tributo não configura por si só circunstância que acarrete a responsabilidade subsidiária do sócio – daí a necessidade de irregularidades para o redirecionamento.

Fonte: Valor econômico
Data: 22 de setembro de 2016
Acesso: 23 de setembro de 2016

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