Reforma trabalhista brasileira desanima investidores nos EUA

Reforma trabalhista brasileira desanima investidores nos EUA

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O Brasil não é capitalista, ou pelo menos não na medida que americanos esperavam depois da reforma trabalhista costurada pelo Planalto no governo Michel Temer.

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Empresários, investidores, advogados, consultores e representantes do setor bancário saíram um tanto frustrados de um encontro na Câmara de Comércio Brasil-Estados Unidos, na semana passada, em Nova York, alguns deles com mais perguntas do que respostas na cabeça.

“Então quer dizer que ainda não vamos poder reduzir salários? Isso é a coisa mais anticapitalista que existe”, reclamou Terry Boyland, da CPQI, empresa que presta serviços de tecnologia a bancos na América Latina. “E se perdermos dinheiro? Vamos também dividir os prejuízos?”

Isabel Bueno, sócia da Mattos Filho, firma de advocacia que organizou o encontro, concordou diante de uma sala lotada. “Não é capitalista.”

Sergio Moraes/Reuters

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Empresários, no caso, imaginavam poder terceirizar funcionários da forma como quisessem, reduzir salários e driblar processos trabalhistas, mas viram que não será o mar de rosas que vislumbravam com a “maior reforma do setor em 50 anos”, como resumiu um convidado.

Um dos principais fatores de desilusão, aliás, é a dificuldade de terceirizar trabalhadores. Muitos, no caso, pretendiam demitir e recontratar os mesmos funcionários de prestadoras de serviços, mas não gostaram de saber que a lei impõe uma quarentena de um ano e meio.

Isso quer dizer que um empregado demitido só poderia voltar à mesma empresa como terceirizado depois de aguardar esse prazo, inviabilizando o que seria uma forma de pagar menos encargos sobre a folha de pagamento.

“Esse é um ponto crítico que falhou”, diz Gustavo Salgado, do banco japonês Sumitomo Mitsui, que tem operações em São Paulo. “É uma questão muito sensível porque pode tornar nossas empresas mais competitivas.”

No caso, é um ponto que distancia ainda a lei brasileira da americana, que possibilita arranjos mais flexíveis.

“Eles têm um sentimento de frustração. Querem pagar para ver”, diz Glaucia Lauletta, outra sócia do Mattos Filho. “É uma mudança que leva tempo, e cultura não se muda de uma hora para outra. A gente está no limite, e no Brasil coisas só acontecem quando chegam ao limite.”

ALENTO

Mesmo que não possam desidratar as folhas de pagamento, gestores veem um alento na possibilidade de negociar contratações e demissões direto com o trabalhador em acordos que prevalecem sobre a lei trabalhista, dependendo de seu nível de escolaridade e salário. “Estamos a um dedinho de ter um contrato mais flexível”, diz Bueno.

Alguns pontos da reforma trabalhista são bem recebidos por empresários. Entre os mais animadores está a exigência, em casos de litígio, que o trabalhador que perder uma ação movida contra a empresa tenha de arcar com os custos jurídicos, que pode chegar a 20% do valor pretendido pelo processo.

Na opinião do advogado Dario Abrahão Rabay, a medida vai acabar com a “indústria de ações” e a “cultura de litígios” que domina as relações de trabalho no Brasil. “Esperamos ver uma queda no número de processos.”

“O pior para nós são os pagamentos de danos morais”, diz Alberto Camões, da Stratus, empresa que presta serviços de consultoria a outros grupos no Brasil. “Como não custa nada processar, prevalecia antes a ideia de mover uma ação só porque podem.”

John Gontijo, da Farkouh, Furman & Faccio, empresa que presta serviços de consultoria tributária em Nova York, concorda. Ele afirma que o grande avanço da reforma trabalhista passa por diminuir o poder dos sindicatos e tornar flexível as relações de patrão e empregado.

“Esse é o principal ponto”, diz Gontijo. “É o que mais aproxima as leis do Brasil das regras que já eram seguidas por empresas americanas.”

Fonte: Folha de São Paulo
Data: 03 de outubro de 2017
Acesso: 04 de outubro de 2017

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