Reforma trabalhista só deve valer para ação posterior, decidem juízes

Reforma trabalhista só deve valer para ação posterior, decidem juízes

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A Lei nº 13.467/2017, texto da reforma trabalhista, só deve valer para processos e contratos iniciados após o dia 11 de novembro de 2017, data em que as novas regras entraram em vigor. Esse é o entendimento da Associação Nacional dos Magistrados da Justiça do Trabalho (Anamatra), aprovado neste sábado (5), no Congresso Nacional dos Magistrados da Justiça do Trabalho (Conamat).

Foi o primeiro congresso promovido pela associação após a aprovação da reforma. Cerca de 700 juízes se reuniram para debater, sobretudo, as polêmicas da mudança nas leis trabalhistas. Após o debate de um número recorde de teses apresentadas ao fórum, concluíram que a reforma trabalhista deve ser aplicada de acordo com a Constituição Federal e as convenções e tratados internacionais e os juízes do Trabalho. As teses aprovadas devem guiar a atuação da associação, mas não necessariamente os posicionamentos de todos os juízes, pois há independência.

Essa vinculação deve ser expressa, por exemplo, na garantia do acesso à Justiça. A reforma estabeleceu que, caso o trabalhador perca a ação, deve arcar com as custas do processo. Até mesmo pessoas pobres que contarem com acesso à Justiça gratuita também ficaram, pela regra, sujeitas ao pagamento de honorários de perícias se tiver obtido créditos em outros processos capazes de suportar a despesa.

Para o presidente da Anamatra, juiz Guilherme Feliciano, as proposições são ilegais. “Essas restrições que a reforma estabeleceu para o acesso à Justiça são inconstitucionais, pois ferem o direito à assistência judicial gratuita”, afirma. Ele exemplifica que uma pessoa que ganhe o direito a receber dez salários mínimos em um pedido, mas na mesma ação perde em outro e, por exemplo, fica obrigada a pagar honorários da parte contrária, compensará as perdas com o que ganhou. Na prática, perderia um direito.

A questão é objeto de ação que está em discussão no Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF). Agora, com o posicionamento tomado em congresso, a Anamatra, que já participa das ações como amicus curiae, deve fortalecer as ações para que esse entendimento também predomine no Supremo.

“[Até lá], a lei da reforma trabalhista está em vigor, os juízes vão considerá-las, mas como juízes que são e a maneira do que fazem todos os demais juízes, vão proceder a interpretação de acordo com a Constituição da República”, explica Feliciano.

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Acordos coletivos

Outro posicionamento tomado pela associação é relativo aos acordos coletivos. A Anamatra também considerou inconstitucionais a previsão legal que diz que o percentual de insalubridade pode ser diminuído por norma coletiva e também o artigo que aponta que jornada e repouso não dizem respeito à saúde e à segurança do trabalhador. Para a associação, não é possível que acordos se sobreponham às leis existentes – o chamado negociado sobre o legislado – em relação a essas questões, exatamente por se tratar de temas relacionados à saúde e segurança do trabalho.

O congresso também reafirmou que “os juízes, em suas decisões, não podem ser tolhidos na sua livre convicção motivada”. “Qualquer entendimento, que parta da lei, no sentido de pretender que fixar uma interpretação é uma restrição inconstitucional”, acrescenta o Feliciano.

Discussão polêmica envolveu a contribuição sindical. Embora haja críticas quanto à natureza tributária que essa contribuição tem, o Conamat aprovou tese que entende inconstitucional a supressão do caráter obrigatório da contribuição sindical pela Lei nº 13.467/2017, o que só poderia ser feito por lei complementar – e não ordinária, com é a lei da reforma trabalhista.

Fonte: Agência Brasil
Data: 05 de maio de 2018
Acesso: 11 de maio de 2018

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