Tribunais livram empresas do adicional de 10% do FGTS

Tribunais livram empresas do adicional de 10% do FGTS

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Empresas conseguiram emplacar, em segunda instância, uma nova tese contra a cobrança do adicional de 10% do Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço (FGTS). É a terceira sobre o tema – em uma delas, os contribuintes foram derrotados no Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF). As decisões são dos Tribunais Regionais Federais (TRFs) da 2ª e 5ª Regiões.

O adicional foi criado em 2001, por meio da Lei Complementar nº 110, para cobrir o rombo dos expurgos inflacionários dos planos Verão (1989) e Collor I (1990). Com o acréscimo, a multa rescisória paga em caso de demissão sem justa causa, incidente sobre o valor do FGTS depositado, passou de 40% para 50%. Em 2017, a arrecadação foi de R$ 5,2 bilhões.

A nova tese tem como base a Emenda Constitucional nº 33, de 11 de dezembro de 2001. Pelo que estabelece a norma, segundo argumentam as empresas, o adicional de 10% do FGTS não poderia ser enquadrado como contribuição social.

A emenda afirma que as contribuições sociais e de intervenção no domínio econômico poderão ter alíquotas tendo por base faturamento, receita bruta ou o valor da operação e, no caso de importação, o valor aduaneiro. E, no caso do FGTS, a multa incide sobre o “montante de todos os depósitos devidos durante a vigência do contrato de trabalho”.

A nova argumentação foi aceita pelo TRF da 5ª Região, em mandado de segurança (nº 0807214-32.2018.4.05.8300) julgado no mês de dezembro. No voto, o relator, desembargador Rubens Canuto, afirma que a situação, no caso, se refere a possível incompatibilidade constitucional das contribuições instituídas por lei, como é o caso da contribuição adicional ao FGTS, antes das modificações realizadas pela Emenda Constitucional nº 33, de 2001.

Para Canuto, o adicional de 10% é inconstitucional. A legislação que o instituiu, a Lei Complementar nº 110, de junho de 2001, após a Emenda Constitucional nº 33, de dezembro do mesmo ano, passou a colidir “frontalmente” com o artigo 149 da Constituição Federal.

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De acordo com o desembargador, com a emenda, ficaram revogadas as contribuições que incidem sobre outras bases de cálculo distintas das fixadas no artigo 149. O mesmo argumento foi aceito pela pelo TRF da 2ª Região no fim de 2017 (processo nº 0137232-69.2015.4.02.5001).

É a terceira tese que chega aos tribunais para tentar derrubar o adicional de 10% do FGTS. A primeira alegava inconstitucionalidades formais e materiais por não ser uma contribuição social. A argumentação, porém, foi derrubada pelos ministros do Supremo ADI 2556 e ADI 2568).

A segunda tese leva em conta a perda de finalidade da contribuição. A questão está na pauta do STF (RE 578313, ADI 5050, ADI 5.051 e ADI 5.053), mas prevalecem decisões contrárias aos contribuintes. Um dos processos em repercussão geral é da Intelbrás – Indústria de Telecomunicação Eletrônica Brasileira. A empresa defende que, desde janeiro de 2007, não haveria mais necessidade de cobrança.

De acordo com o advogado que atuou no caso analisado pelo TRF da 5ª Região, Pedro Amarante, do escritório Almeida e Barros Advogados, a nova tese é bem diferente das demais e tem chances de prosperar. Ele não acredita que a discussão passará pelo Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ) pelo fato de as decisões de basearem em argumentos constitucionais. A questão (emenda constitucional) já está na pauta do STF, por meio de recurso (RE 603624) que discute contribuição destinada ao Sebrae.

A Procuradoria-Geral da Fazenda Nacional (PGFN) pretende recorrer das decisões. Em nota ao Valor, a PGFN afirma que se houvesse a revogação do adicional de 10% pela Emenda Constitucional nº 33, de 2001, ela teria sido observada no julgamento do STF em 2012. “Tivesse enxergado qualquer inconstitucionalidade (superveniente ou congênita), considerando a causa de pedir aberta do controle abstrato de constitucionalidade, a Suprema Corte poderia tê-la reconhecido”, diz o órgão na nota.

No texto, a PGFN argumenta ainda que o artigo 149 da Constituição afirma que as contribuições sociais poderão ter aqueles fatos como base e não “deverão”. Por isso, seria um rol exemplificativo e não taxativo. A jurisprudência acompanha esse entendimento, acrescenta o órgão, inclusive no TRF da 5ª Região.

Fonte: Valor Econômico
Data: 29 de janeiro de 2019
Acesso: 01 de fevereiro de 2019

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