União impede contribuintes de pagarem IR com crédito fiscal

União impede contribuintes de pagarem IR com crédito fiscal

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O governo conseguiu, sem muito barulho, alterar as regras da compensação tributária – uso de créditos fiscais para pagamento de tributos. Incluiu um artigo na Lei nº 13.670, que trata da reoneração da folha de pagamento de alguns setores, para impedir empresas do lucro real, que faturam acima de R$ 78 milhões por ano, de quitarem Imposto de Renda (IR) e CSLL por meio desse instrumento.

A medida passou despercebida por contribuintes e também advogados, no dia em que a lei foi aprovada, porque toda a publicidade era sobre a reoneração da folha. A lei foi votada no fim de maio, em meio à greve dos caminhoneiros, como uma saída para amenizar as perdas que a União teria com a redução dos tributos do óleo diesel.

O trecho que trata sobre a compensação está no artigo 6º. O dispositivo acrescenta cinco incisos ao artigo 74 da Lei nº 9.430, de 1996. O mais polêmico, segundo advogados, é o que trata das empresas do lucro real que optaram pelo recolhimento de IR e CSLL por estimativa, mês a mês.

Mas há ainda impedimento para a compensação de valores que estejam pendentes de decisão administrativa e também é vedada, para abatimento de débitos, a utilização de créditos que estejam sob procedimento fiscal e de valores de quotas de salário-família e salário-maternidade.

“As empresas do lucro real vão sentir os efeitos no fluxo de caixa. E o impacto será imediato”, diz o advogado Rafael Serrano, do escritório Chamon Santana Advogados. “O contribuinte tem até o último dia útil do mês para declarar o imposto e ele já não vai mais poder compensar. Terá, então, que tirar dinheiro do caixa mesmo que não tenha se preparado para isso.”

Até a publicação da nova lei, podia-se abater dos pagamentos mensais de Imposto de Renda e CSLL os valores que tinham a receber do Fisco. Esse crédito era gerado, por exemplo, com o recolhimento a maior, em outras ocasiões, do próprio IR e da CSLL e também de PIS e Cofins.

Advogados lembram que o governo já havia tentado mudar as regras da compensação em 2008, por meio da Medida Provisória (MP) 449. A mudança era praticamente a mesma apresentada agora. Só que quando a MP foi convertida em lei, esse item acabou sendo retirado.

Agora, com a lei já sancionada e em vigor, os contribuintes planejam ir ao Judiciário. Um dos argumentos para derrubar a nova regra, segundo especialistas, é o de que a medida fere o princípio da não surpresa.

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“O contribuinte estava contando com essas compensações. Quando optou pelo recolhimento mês a mês isso era possível”, diz o advogado Marcelo Annunziata, do escritório Demarest. “Mudaram a regra no meio do jogo. O contribuinte não tem como agora voltar atrás e escolher, por exemplo, que vai recolher o imposto por trimestre, a outra opção de quem está no lucro real”, completa.

Luís Alexandre Barbosa, do escritório LBMF, deve ingressar, a pedido de clientes, com cinco mandados de segurança contra a nova regra já nos próximos dias. Para ele, há uma “evidente violação à segurança jurídica”. “A opção adotada pelo contribuinte no início do exercício, vinculante para todo o ano de 2018, implica ato jurídico perfeito”, diz.

Já o tributarista Leo Lopes, do escritório WFaria, chama a atenção que essa não é uma medida isolada e sim parte de um movimento do governo para restringir as compensações. Ele cita a Instrução Normativa (IN) 1765, publicada pela Receita Federal em dezembro do ano passado, que condiciona os pedidos de compensação de créditos de Imposto de Renda a uma declaração fiscal cuja entrega ocorre geralmente no mês de julho.

Antes dessa norma, os contribuintes podiam usar os valores para o pagamento de novos tributos já no começo do ano. “Não há motivo para essas mudanças se não o aumento de arrecadação”, critica o advogado.

O projeto que deu origem à Lei nº 13.670 foi enviado pelo Executivo à Câmara Federal no fim de 2017. E o governo não negou, quando encaminhou a proposta, que a mudança na regra da compensação tinha caráter arrecadatório. “Essa alteração é necessária e sua urgência decorre da queda de arrecadação para a qual as inúmeras compensações contribuem”, diz no texto o então ministro da Fazenda, Henrique Meirelles.

Ele acrescentou ainda que grande parte dessas compensações ocorre de forma indevida e até que sejam analisadas e não homologadas pela Receita acabam atrasando o pagamento, de fato, do imposto. Segundo constava no projeto, as declarações de compensação, na época, totalizavam R$ 309,1 bilhões em créditos, representando 643 mil documentos. Desse total, porém, só 169 mil tinham algum “valor demonstrado de estimativa compensada” – ou seja, com probabilidade de aceitação pelo Fisco -, e representavam R$ 160,5 bilhões.

Com a nova regra já aprovada, a compensação pelas empresas do lucro real fica restrita, mas não há impedimento para que usem os créditos que têm com o Fisco para o pagamento de outros tributos federais. A compensação não é mais possível para quitar IR e CSLL, mas ainda pode ser feita, por exemplo, para pagar PIS e Cofins.

Fonte: Valor Econômico
Data: 08 de junho de 2018
Acesso: 08 de junho de 2018

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