Unificação PIS e Cofins

Unificação PIS e Cofins

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Por Tainã Baião

A reforma do PIS / Cofins elevará as alíquotas com certeza

O PIS é um Programa de Integração Social, a COFINS é uma contribuição que financia a Seguridade Social. Ambos pertencem a mesma base de cálculo e mesmo cunho social.

Deste modo a unificação seria uma ótima opção, juntar dois tributos em um único pagamento, assim como é feito no Simples Nacional onde todos os tributos são pagos em uma única guia.

Entretanto os empresários não compartilham da mesma opinião, principalmente os do setor de serviços que estão no regime cumulativo, eles preveem um aumento de 104% na carga tributária com essa unificação.

Como será feita a unificação

A reforma está em pauta desde de 2013 e segundo a Receita Federal a unificação será feita de forma gradativa. Começando com o PIS, será uma fase de teste por um ano. Logo após entrará em vigor o novo PIS e por último a unificação dos dois em um único tributo, que vai ser parecido com os impostos cobrados em países europeus.

A forma gradativa serve como parâmetro para análise das mudanças, se os valores das alíquotas compensam os créditos tributários, dentre outras coisas.

Iniciar com o PIS surgiu como ideia, devido a ser uma contribuição de valor menor que o Cofins, diminuindo o impacto na arrecadação.

Para as empresas a mudança irá ocorrer assim: tudo adquirido na etapa anterior, vira crédito na etapa seguinte. Sendo assim, todo imposto pago antes, será creditado na venda com a mudança.

Hoje, apenas os impostos pagos na aquisição de insumos e gastos com produção podem ser creditados.  Gerando muitas contestações entre Receita Federal e Contribuintes, que muitas vezes não conseguem o ressarcimento do PIS e da Cofins.

Ainda sobre o PIS, com a unificação o tributo passa a ter quatro faixas de alíquotas para ser adaptado aos setores de varejo, indústria e construção civil que farão jus as alíquotas diferenciadas.

A reforma do PIS / Cofins, elevará as alíquotas com certeza, como uma forma de compensação aos créditos estendidos.

Na legislação atual, há distinção de alíquotas por tributação da empresa. Se a empresa opera pelo lucro presumido, então o sistema é o cumulativo e as alíquotas são 3% e 0,65% de Cofins e PIS, respectivamente.

As empresas que optaram pelo lucro real, são pelo sistema não cumulativo com alíquotas de 7,6% Cofins e 1,65% PIS, mas tem direito ao uso dos créditos gerados nas operações.

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Com a aprovação, o PIS vai ser recolhido pelo sistema não cumulativo, dando uma amplitude maior de descontos, inclusive produtos intangíveis (serviços).

Novas regras seriam adotadas no que tange os custos e despesas, que passariam a ter os mesmos critérios do IRPJ (Imposto de Renda Pessoa Jurídica).

O tratamento para os optantes do Simples Nacional, permanecerá o mesmo, a alíquota é de 0,57% sobre o faturamento bruto.

Empresários x Governo

Do ponto de vista dos empresários haverá fechamento de mais de 1,5 milhões de empresas, aumento de arrecadação em 50 bilhões de reais e desemprego em torno de 10%, como consequências da unificação do PIS/ Cofins.

De acordo com o que foi formulado no projeto de reforma do PIS e da Cofins, a alíquota única seria de 9,25%, causando um aumento de 104% na carga tributária para o setor de serviços, segundo estudos feitos pela FENACON e SESCON-SP. Esse aumento será maior para o setor em decorrência do sistema cumulativo que é usado, pois predominam um custo com pessoas muito grande. Não há como gerar créditos da folha de pagamento, por exemplo.

Diferente dos setores do comércio e indústria que geram créditos através do modelo não cumulativo.

Esse não seria o único ponto negativo da unificação dos tributos em questão, segundo o Fenacon. Há ainda outro estudo que aponta uma elevação da inflação, que seria impactada pelo aumento da carga tributária do setor de serviços e em consequência elevação dos preços dos serviços em torno de 4,3%

O Presidente do SESCON – SP diz que, “no atual momento econômico brasileiro, precisamos de medidas de estímulo ao crescimento e não de outras que dificultem ainda mais o cenário empreendedor”, argumenta Shimomoto, ao explicar que a retirada do fôlego das empresas do setor de serviços pode afetar expressivamente a economia e a recuperação do emprego.

Haverá uma audiência pública sobre a Unificação do PIS e da COFINS, pela Comissão de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Indústria, Comércio e Serviços (Cdeics) do Congresso Nacional, presidida pelo deputado Laércio Oliveira.

O Governo afirma que a proposta de unificação do PIS/COFINS deva ser vista como benéfica, pois existirá alíquotas diferenciadas para os setores de bens e serviços e alíquotas menores para os setores de saúde, educação, dentre outros.

Haverá ainda a distinção de alíquotas para agências de viagens, construção civil e outras que ficarão na faixa intermediária. E os setores de autopeças, veículos e farmacêuticos, continuam a ter direito ao regime diferenciado.

Para a Receita Federal, a discussão não está só em torno da unificação dos tributos do PIS e da Confins, mas sim na mudança de outros fatores que irão gerar simplificação e benefícios como a simplificação no recolhimento de tributos, equilíbrio de regimes de tributação diferenciados e igualdade no tratamento de pequenas empresas.

O Governo diz ter consciência que a mudança gerará alteração nos preços e na economia do país. Porém, as críticas advindas por parte dos empresários são vistas como precipitadas, tendo em vista que estas mesmas empresas irão se beneficiar da ampliação dos créditos.

Inclusive as alíquotas ainda não foram decididas, e nem mesmo se a proposta será um Projeto ou Medida Provisória.

Fonte: Fenacon
Data: 19 de agosto de 2016
Acesso: 19 de agosto de 2016

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